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RAD (Rapid Application Develop)
Alpha Synopsys’s RAP Methodologies
Agile methodology is one of the approaches to project management, usually used in software development. This methodology helps teams respond to the irregularity or unpredictability of building software through incremental and iterative work rhythms. Unlike traditional software development methodology (example: Waterfall) Agile methods attempt to reduce risk and maximize productivity by developing software in short iterations and de-emphasizing work on secondary or interim work objects. Scrum and Extreme Programming (XP) are the most popular agile methods, nevertheless, there are many more Agile methods and agility, as a conceptual framework, may also be applied to the execution of more traditional methods. We will be providing younecessary information regarding other methods.

IEEE’s recently published report said that 80% of all software projects fail and last year, the IEEE conventionallyestimated that over $60 billion dollars was spent on failed software projects. While asked why their projects failed, managers and employees mentioned a broad range of issues. But out of those reasons, here are top six reasons faced over and over again, as the main reasons why their projects failed :

Lesser amount of involvement of end-users
Poor requirements
Unrealistic and impracticable schedules
Lack of change management
Lack of testing
Inflexible and overstuffed processes
Key Benefits
Unlike traditional waterfall development method, agile methodology is simple and offers a lightweight framework for helping teams, provides a persistently evolving functional and technical landscape; maintain a focus on the speedy delivery of business value. As a result of this focus and its associated benefits, organizations are competent of drastically reducing the overall risk associated with software development. Besides this benefit, organizations will be able to:

Ensure that value is continuing to be maximized during the development process Able to align the delivered software with preferred business needs, easily adapting to change requirements throughout the process
Measure and evaluate status based on the unquestionable truth of working, testing software, much more accurate visibility into the actual progress of projects is available Scale without sacrificing quality Ensure expected productivity increases Gain feedback through incremental value delivery Accept change without slowing down Reduce project risk through greater visibility

The diagram below displays the differences between agile and waterfall development processes. By delivering working, tested, deployable software on an incremental basis, agile development delivers increased business value, visibility, and adaptability much earlier in the lifecycle, significantly reducing project risk.
Agile Value Proposition
We consider the following methods to be the "leaders" in the crowd. Each of them has accomplished a status as a "standard" in a significant part of the IT industry.
Scrum is a lightweight management framework with broad applicability for managing and controlling iterative and incremental projects of all types. Scrum has garnered increasing popularity in the software community due to its simplicity, proven productivity, and ability to act as a wrapper for various engineering practices promoted by other agile methodologies.

Scrum has been proven to scale to multiple teams across very large organizations
Extreme Programming (XP)
XP, has emerged as one of the most popular and controversial agile methods. XP is a disciplined approach to delivering high-quality software quickly and continuously. It promotes high customer involvement, rapid feedback loops, continuous testing, continuous planning, and close teamwork to deliver working software at very frequent intervals, typically every 1-3 weeks. The original XP has twelve supporting practices :
  • Planning Game
  • Small Releases
  • Customer Acceptance Tests
  • Simple Design
  • Pair Programming
  • Test-Driven Development
  • Refactoring
  • Continuous Integration
  • Collective Code Ownership
  • Coding Standards
  • Metaphor
  • Sustainable Pace
In XP, the “Customer” works very closely with the development team to define and prioritize granular units of functionality referred to as "User Stories". The development team estimates, plans, and delivers the highest priority user stories in the form of working, tested software on an iteration by iteration basis. In order to maximize productivity, the practices provide a supportive, lightweight framework to guide a team and ensure high-quality software.
The Crystal methodology is one of the most lightweight, adaptable approaches to software development. Crystal is actually comprised of a family of methodologies (Crystal Clear, Crystal Yellow, Crystal Orange, etc.) whose unique characteristics are driven by several factors such as team size, system criticality, and project priorities. This Crystal family addresses the realization that each project may require a slightly tailored set of policies, practices, and processes in order to meet the project’s unique characteristics. Several of the key tenets of Crystal include teamwork, communication, and simplicity, as well as reflection to frequently adjust and improve the process. Like other agile methodologies, Crystal promotes early, frequent delivery of working software, high user involvement, adaptability, and the removal of bureaucracy or distractions.
Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)
DSDM, dating back to 1994, grew out of the need to provide an industry standard project delivery framework for what was referred to as Rapid Application Development (RAD) at the time. While RAD was extremely popular in the early 1990’s, the RAD approach to software delivery evolved in a fairly unstructured manner. DSDM is based on nine key principles that primarily revolve around business needs/value, active user involvement, empowered teams, frequent delivery, integrated testing, and stakeholder collaboration. DSDM specifically calls out “fitness for business purpose” as the primary criteria for delivery and acceptance of a system, focusing on the useful 80% of the system that can be deployed in 20% of the time. Requirements are base lined at a high level early in the project. Rework is built into the process, and all development changes must be reversible. Requirements are planned and delivered in short, fixed-length time-boxes, also referred to as iterations, and requirements for DSDM projects are prioritized using MoSCoW Rules :

M – Must have requirements
S – Should have if at all possible
C – Could have but not critical
W - Won’t have this time, but potentially later

All critical work must be completed in a DSDM project. It is also important that not every requirement in a project or time-box is considered critical. Within each time-box, less critical items are included so that if necessary, they can be removed to keep from impacting higher priority requirements on the schedule. The DSDM project framework is independent of, and can be implemented in conjunction with, other iterative methodologies such as Extreme Programming and the Rational Unified Process.
Feature-Driven Development (FDD)
FDD was originally developed and articulated by Jeff De Luca, with contributions by M.A. Rajashima, Lim Bak Wee, Paul Szego, Jon Kern and Stephen Palmer. The first incarnations of FDD occured as a result of collaboration between De Luca and OOD thought leader Peter Coad. FDD is a model-driven, short-iteration process. It begins with establishing an overall model shape. Then it continues with a series of two-week "design by feature, build by feature" iterations. The features are small, "useful in the eyes of the client" results. FDD designs the rest of the development process around feature delivery using the following eight practices :
  • Domain Object Modeling
  • Developing by Feature
  • Component/Class Ownership
  • Feature Teams
  • Inspections
  • Configuration Management
  • Regular Builds
  • Visibility of progress and results
FDD recommends specific programmer practices such as "Regular Builds" and "Component/Class Ownership". FDD's proponents claim that it scales more straightforwardly than other approaches, and is better suited to larger teams. Unlike other agile approaches, FDD describes specific, very short phases of work which are to be accomplished separately per feature. These include Domain Walkthrough, Design, Design Inspection, Code, Code Inspection, and Promote to Build.
Lean Software Development
Lean Software Development is an iterative methodology originally developed by Mary and Tom Poppendieck. Lean Software Development owes much of its principles and practices to the Lean Enterprise movement, and the practices of companies like Top Automaker. Lean Software Development focuses the team on delivering Value to the customer, and on the efficiency of the "Value Stream," the mechanisms that deliver that Value. The main principles of Lean include :
  • Eliminating Waste
  • Amplifying Learning
  • Deciding as Late as Possible
  • Delivering as Fast as Possible
  • Empowering the Team
  • Building Integrity In
  • Seeing the Whole
Lean eliminates waste through such practices as selecting only the truly valuable features for a system, prioritizing those selected, and delivering them in small batches. It emphasizes the speed and efficiency of development workflow, and relies on rapid and reliable feedback between programmers and customers.
Agile Process Diagram 1.0
Iteration 1
  • Project Scope
  • Develop and Planning
  • Consider Feasibilities
Iteration 0
  • Initiate
  • Project -Approval
  • Requirements Analysis
  • Initial Architecture
  • Collaborative Development
  • Test Driven Development
  • Initial Deployment
Production Support
  • Operate System
  • Identify Defect
  • Support Documentation
  • Data Migration
  • End User Transition
  • Update Enterprise Application
Release Deploy
  • Agile Software Methodology
  • RAD (Rapid Application Develop)
  • RUP (Rapid Unified Process)
  • COE Technology
  • Big Data
  • IT Strategy and Transformation
  • Business Intelligence
  • You,Cloud computing and ASI
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